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All Toilets consist of two parts - a pan and a cistern. The pan is the lower piece that the toilet seat mounts to. The toilet cistern is the higher piece that contains the water to allow the toilet to flush. There are several different configurations of toilet pans and cisterns:
- Close Coupled Toilets - The most common kind of modern toilet. The cistern mounts directly onto the Pan and forms part of the design of the complete Toilet. Most Close Coupled Toilets have a push button operated flush mounted on the top of the cistern.
- Back-to-Wall Toilets - Used in modern designer bathrooms. The cistern is concealed behind a tiled wall or within bathroom furniture. A plastic 'Flush-pipe' is used to connect the cistern to the pan (usually included with the cistern). A separate 'flush plate / button' is required to operate the flush mechanism of the cistern (usually supplied separately).
- Wall Hung Toilets - Uses the same cistern configuration as a back-to-wall toilet, but the toilet pan is lifted of the floor and mounted to the wall. This look is achieved by mounting the pan to a reinforced frame concealed behind the wall.
- Low Level Toilets - Although they are called 'low level', the cistern actually mounts higher than the commonly used close coupled toilet. The pan and cistern are both exposed, but the cistern is mounted slightly above the Pan and is connected via an exposed 'flush pipe' (usually supplied with the cistern). Low level toilets are usually found in older properties, or newer properties trying to achieve a traditional style. Most low level toilets have a Lever operated flush handle, as opposed to the modern 'push button' cistern.
- High Level Toilets - Uses the same cistern configuration as a low level toilet, but the toilet cistern is mounted much higher. Usually found in schools or commercial properties, a high level cistern flush is operated by an extended chain pull. High level toilets are now found in high end traditionally styled bathrooms.